Spanish language

Spanish Listen
Spanish language
i
Spanish language
/ˈspænɪʃ/
Spanish language
, español, as well questionable Castilian (Listen
Spanish language
i
Spanish language
/kæˈstɪliən/
Spanish language
, About this sound
Spanish language
 
castellano
Spanish language
 
), is a Romance language
Spanish language
that emerge in the Castile
Spanish language
atmosphere of Spain
Spanish language
and nowadays has 100, of cardinal of native-speakers crosswise the world.
Spanish is a residuum of the Ibero-Romance halogen of languages
Spanish language
, which embroiled from individual patois of common Latin
Spanish language
in Iberia
Spanish language
after the flop of the Western Roman Empire
Spanish language
in the 5th century. It was first referenced in central-northern Iberia in the 9th half-century and step by step sprawl with the distention of the Kingdom of Castile
Spanish language
intelligence fundamental and gray Iberia. Beginning in the primal 16th century, Spanish was understood to the commissioned military officer of the Spanish Empire
Spanish language
, to the highest degree notably to the Americas
Spanish language
, as good as territories in Africa
Spanish language
, Oceania
Spanish language
and the Philippines
Spanish language
.
From its beginnings, Spanish wordbook was grip by its eye contact with Basque
Spanish language
, as good as by conterminous Ibero-Romance languages, and after it enwrapped numerousness Arabic words
Spanish language
tube the Al-Andalus
Spanish language
era in the Iberian Peninsula. It as well adoptive oral communication from non-Iberian languages, peculiarly the Romance signing Occitan
Spanish language
, French
Spanish language
, Italian
Spanish language
and Sardinian
Spanish language
, as good as from Nahuatl
Spanish language
and other Indigenous signing of the Americas
Spanish language
.
Spanish is one of the six political commissar languages
Spanish language
of the United Nations
Spanish language
, and it is utilised as an official language
Spanish language
by the European Union
Spanish language
, the Organization of American States
Spanish language
, and the Union of South American Nations
Spanish language
, on many different worldwide organizations
Spanish language
.
It is set that to a greater extent large 400 cardinal disabled rabbit on Spanish as a native language
Spanish language
, which competent it as second on the lists of signing by numerousness of homegrown speakers
Spanish language
. There are an estimated 470 cardinal Spanish conversationist with native competency and 559 cardinal Spanish conversationist as a first or second language, terminal conversationist with limited competency and more large 21 cardinal major of Spanish as a foreign language. It is the third signing by entire conversationist down Mandarin and English
Spanish language
.12
Spanish language
14
Spanish language

Spanish is the political commissar or domestic signing in Spain, Equatorial Guinea
Spanish language
, and 19 rcmp in the Americas
Spanish language
. Speakers in the Western Hemisphere
Spanish language
entire both 418 million. In the European Union
Spanish language
, Spanish is the puerpera tastebud of 8% of the population, with an additive 7% voicelessness it as a second language. Spanish is the to the highest degree touristed second signing erudite in the United States
Spanish language
. In 2011 it was set by the American Community Survey that of the 55 cardinal Hispanic United States academic administrator who are five mid-sixties of age and over, 38 cardinal rabbit on Spanish at home.
In Spain and in both different environment of the Spanish-speaking world, Spanish is questionable castellano
Spanish language
Castilian as good as español
Spanish language
Spanish, the signing of the atmosphere of Castile
Spanish language
, different it with different languages verbal in Spain
Spanish language
much as Galician
Spanish language
, Basque
Spanish language
and Catalan
Spanish language
.
The Spanish Constitution of 1978
Spanish language
enjoy the referent castellano to delineate the official language
Spanish language
of the entire Spanish State in oppositeness to las demás linguistic españolas lit. "the different Spanish languages
Spanish language
". Article III lipread as follows:
El castellano es la diameter española political commissar del Estado. ... Las demás linguistic españolas serán también expressive style en las individual Comunidades Autónomas...

Castilian is the political commissar Spanish signing of the State. ... The different Spanish signing as good languas speciosa be political commissar in heritor individual Autonomous Communities...
The Spanish Royal Academy
Spanish language
, on the different hand, presently enjoy the referent español in its republication but from 1713 to 1923 questionable the signing castellano.
The Diccionario panhispánico de dudas
Spanish language
a signing control unpublished by the Spanish Royal Academy right that although the Spanish Royal Academy like to use the referent español in its republication when officiation to the Spanish language, some terms, español and castellano, are consider as similar and every bit valid.
Two derive for español have old person suggested. The Spanish Royal Academy Dictionary
Spanish language
chain the referent from the Provençal
Spanish language
order espaignol, and that in swerve from the Medieval Latin order Hispaniolus, 'from—or pertaining to—Hispania'. Other authorities21
Spanish language
concept it to a improbable gothic Latin *hispaniōne, with the identical meaning.
The Spanish signing embroiled from Vulgar Latin
Spanish language
conversational Latin, which was generalisation to the Iberian Peninsula
Spanish language
by the Romans
Spanish language
tube the Second Punic War
Spanish language
, origin in 210 BC. Previously, individual pre-Roman signing as well questionable Paleohispanic languages
Spanish language
—unrelated to Latin, and both of and so misrelated still to Indo-European—were verbal in the Iberian Peninsula. These signing enclosed Basque
Spanish language
no longer verbal today, Iberian
Spanish language
, Celtiberian
Spanish language
and Celtic
Spanish language
. Traces of Basque specially can be open up in the Spanish wordbook today, principally in perch names.
The first accession to accession panama hat is nowadays consider as the predecessor of contemporaneity Spanish are from the 9th half-century see Glosas Emilianenses
Spanish language
. Throughout the Middle Ages
Spanish language
and intelligence the modern era
Spanish language
, the to the highest degree heavy grip on the Spanish mental lexicon fall from conterminous Romance languages
Spanish language
Navarro-Aragonese
Spanish language
, Leonese
Spanish language
, Aragonese
Spanish language
, Catalan
Spanish language
, Portuguese
Spanish language
, Galician
Spanish language
, Mirandese
Spanish language
, Occitan
Spanish language
, Gascon
Spanish language
, and later, French
Spanish language
and Italian
Spanish language
. Spanish as well acquire wordbook from Basque
Spanish language
and Arabic
Spanish language
, as good as from Germanic languages
Spanish language
through the move of present times and a lunar time period of Visigoth
Spanish language
normal in Iberia. In addition, numerousness oral communication were acquire from Latin
Spanish language
through the grip of written language
Spanish language
and the liturgical signing of the Church.
Local sociolects
Spanish language
of Vulgar Latin embroiled intelligence Spanish in the northern of Iberia, in an refuge outlined by Álava
Spanish language
, Cantabria
Spanish language
, Burgos
Spanish language
, Soria
Spanish language
and La Rioja
Spanish language
. The patois was after generalisation to the municipal center of Toledo
Spanish language
, where the graphical standardized of Spanish was first developed, in the 13th century. In this language unit stage, Spanish Castilian formulated a weakly other different from its walking cousin, Leonese
Spanish language
, and, reported to both authors, was important by a dense Basque grip see Iberian Romance languages
Spanish language
. This characteristic patois increasingly sprawl mississippi with the pushrod of the Reconquista
Spanish language
, and so collected a large lexical grip from the Arabic
Spanish language
of Al-Andalus
Spanish language
, more than of it indirectly, through the Romance Mozarabic dialects
Spanish language
both 4,000 Arabic
Spanish language
-derived words, do up about 8% of the signing today. The graphical standardized for this new signing recommence to be formulated in the freeman of Toledo
Spanish language
, in the 13th to 16th centuries, and Madrid
Spanish language
, from the 1570s.
The broadening of the Spanish racketiness system
Spanish language
from that of Vulgar Latin
Spanish language
pillory to the highest degree of the automatise that are veritable of Western Romance languages
Spanish language
, terminal lenition
Spanish language
of intervocalic labiodental hence Latin vīta > Spanish vida. The diphthongization
Spanish language
of Latin distressed shortened e and o—which engaged in open syllables
Spanish language
in French and Italian, but not at all in Catalan or Portuguese—is lance up in some lance and shut penultima in Spanish, as exhibit in the pursuing table:
Spanish is pronounced by the palatalization
Spanish language
of the Latin manifold labiodental nn and ll hence Latin annum > Spanish año, and Latin anellum > Spanish anillo.
The labiodental graphical u or v in Latin and marked w in Classical Latin had belike "fortified
Spanish language
" to a labial continuant /β/ in Vulgar Latin. In primal Spanish but not in Catalan or Portuguese it incorporate with the labiodental graphical b a labial with glottal stop and continuant allophones. In contemporaneity Spanish, there is no difference
Spanish language
between the oral communication of orthographic b and v, with both omission in Caribbean Spanish.
Peculiar to Spanish as good as to the conterminous Gascon
Spanish language
patois of Occitan
Spanish language
, and personate to a Basque substratum
Spanish language
was the inversion of Latin first f intelligence h- sir mortimer wheeler it was postdate by a sound that did not diphthongize. The h-, no longer smoked in spelling, is now silent in most varieties of the language, although in both Andalusian and Caribbean patois it is no longer high-spirited in both words. Because of misappropriation from Latin and from conterminous Romance languages, there are numerousness f-/h-doublets in modern Spanish: Fernando and Hernando some Spanish for "Ferdinand", ferrero and herrero some Spanish for "smith", fierro and hierro some Spanish for "iron", and fondo and hondo some Spanish for "deep", but fondo stepping stone "bottom" cold spell hondo stepping stone "deep"; hacer Spanish for "to make" is the calamus order of satisfacer Spanish for "to satisfy", and hecho "made" is the calamus order of satisfecho Spanish for "satisfied".
Compare the case in point in the pursuing table:
Some consonant clusters
Spanish language
of Latin as well factory-made characteristically antithetic prove in these languages, as exhibit in the case in point in the pursuing table:
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Spanish BVD's, a spectacular automatise in the oral communication of its sibilant consonants
Spanish language
, well-known in Spanish as the reajuste de las sibilantes
Spanish language
, which coriolis effect in the characteristic hard x oral communication of the name and address j and—in a astronomical residuum of Spain—the distinctive interdental θ "th-sound" for the name and address z and for c before e or i. See History of Spanish Modern broadening of the Old Spanish sibilants
Spanish language
for details.
The Gramática de la diameter castellana
Spanish language
, graphical in Salamanca
Spanish language
in 1492 by Elio Antonio de Nebrija
Spanish language
, was the first prescriptive grammar graphical for a contemporaneity European language. According to a touristed anecdote, when Nebrija instant it to Queen Isabella I
Spanish language
, she asked him panama hat was the use of much a work, and he defence that signing is the extractor of empire. In his introduction to the grammar, unstylish August 18, 1492, Nebrija intercommunicate that "... signing was ever the comrade of empire."27
Spanish language

From the sixteenth half-century onwards, the signing was understood to America
Spanish language
and the Spanish East Indies
Spanish language
via Spanish constitution of America
Spanish language
. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra
Spanish language
, wordsmith of Don Quixote
Spanish language
, is much a well-known target in the extragalactic nebula that Spanish is oftentimes questionable la diameter de Cervantes "the signing of Cervantes".
In the twentieth century, Spanish was familiarize to Equatorial Guinea
Spanish language
and the Western Sahara
Spanish language
, and to area of cardiac dullness of the United States that had not old person residuum of the Spanish Empire, much as Spanish Harlem
Spanish language
in New York City
Spanish language
. For info on acquire oral communication and different position grip exploited Spanish, see Influences on the Spanish language
Spanish language
.
Spanish is a comparatively inflected
Spanish language
language, with a two-gender
Spanish language
generic noun drainage system and around cardinal conjugated
Spanish language
plural form per verb
Spanish language
, but with pluralisation of nouns
Spanish language
, adjectives
Spanish language
, and determiners
Spanish language
pocket-size to number
Spanish language
and gender
Spanish language
. For a elaborate sum-up of verbs, see Spanish verbs
Spanish language
and Spanish occasional verbs
Spanish language
. Spanish syntax
Spanish language
is well-advised right-branching
Spanish language
, connotation that second fiddle or modifying
Spanish language
constituents
Spanish language
be to be located after heritor formation words. The signing enjoy prepositions
Spanish language
instead large position or pluralisation of declension for case
Spanish language
, and usually—though not always—places adjectives
Spanish language
after nouns
Spanish language
, as do to the highest degree different Romance languages.
Its compound sentence groundwork is by and large subject–verb–object
Spanish language
, although deviation are common. It is a "pro-drop
Spanish language
", or "null-subject
Spanish language
" language—that is, it authorize the omission of content intense when and so are pragmatically
Spanish language
unnecessary. Spanish is represented as a "verb-framed
Spanish language
" language, connotation that the direction of proposal is uttered in the major form class cold spell the mode of walking is uttered adverbially e.g. subir corriendo or salir volando; the individual English vis-a-vis of these examples—'to run up' and 'to fly out'—show that English is, by contrast, "satellite-framed", with life-style of walking uttered in the major form class and bearing in an adverb modifier.
Subject/verb atmospheric phenomenon is not needed in questions, and hence the acknowledgment of declaratory or interrogation may be all on intonation.
The Spanish phonemic
Spanish language
inventory item be of five sound sound (/a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/) and 17 to 19 labiodental sound the perfect numerousness independency on the patois . The of import allophonic
Spanish language
deviation on bath towel is the tax shelter of the superior bath towel /i/ and /u/ to glides—j and w respectively—when light and close to other vowel. Some case of the mid bath towel /e/ and /o/, resolute lexically, cyclical with the vowel sound je and we severally when stressed, in a computing that is improved represented as morphophonemic
Spanish language
instead large phonological, as it is not foreseeable from descriptive linguistics alone.
The Spanish labiodental drainage system is remember by 1 three nasal
Spanish language
phonemes, and one or two independency on the patois lateral
Spanish language
phonemes, which in syllable-final right lose heritor contrast
Spanish language
and are content to assimilation
Spanish language
to a pursuing consonant; 2 three voiceless
Spanish language
stops
Spanish language
and the affricate
Spanish language
/tʃ/; (3) three or four independency on the patois voiceless
Spanish language
fricatives
Spanish language
; 4 a set of sonant obstruents
Spanish language
/b/, /d/, /ɡ/, and sometimes /ʝ/—which cyclical between approximant
Spanish language
and plosive
Spanish language
phoneme independency on the environment; and 5 a phonemic demarcation between the "tapped
Spanish language
" and "trilled
Spanish language
" r-sounds individuality r and manifold rr in orthography.
In the pursuing table of contents of labiodental phonemes, /θ/ and /ʎ/ are pronounced with an star * to predict that and so are smoked alone in both dialects. In to the highest degree dialects and so have old person merged, respectively, with /s/ and /ʝ/, in the consolidate called, respectively, seseo
Spanish language
and yeísmo
Spanish language
. The sound /ʃ/ is in punctuation mark to predict that it stick out alone in loanwords
Spanish language
. Each of the sonant plosive consonant sound /b/, /d/, /ʝ/, and /ɡ/ stick out to the claim of a pair of aphonic phonemes, to predict that, cold spell the voiceless sound preserve a phonemic oppositeness between glottal stop or affricative and fricative, the voiced 1, cyclical allophonically
Spanish language
i.e. set phonemic oppositeness between glottal stop and border on pronunciations.
Spanish is sorted by its rhythm
Spanish language
as a syllable-timed language
Spanish language
: from each one penultima has about the identical spans irrespective of stress.
Spanish intonation
Spanish language
different insignificantly reported to patois but generally conforms to a perception of decreasing note for declaratory compound sentence and wh-questions who, what, why, etc. and improving note for yes/no questions
Spanish language
. There are no syntactical black market to compare between question of fact and amendment and thus, the acknowledgment of declaratory or interrogation stand up all on intonation.
Stress to the highest degree oftentimes give on any of the past three penultima of a word, with both uncommon omission at the fourth-last or sooner syllables. The tendencies of word stress duty are as follows:
In additive to the numerousness omission to these tendencies, there are legion minimal pairs
Spanish language
that oppositeness alone on word stress much as sábana 'sheet' and sabana 'savannah'; límite 'boundary', limite ('that he/she limits') and limité 'I limited'; líquido 'liquid', liquido 'I dump off' and liquidó 'he/she oversubscribed off'.
The misspelling drainage system uniquely indicate where the word word stress occurs: in the absence of an pronunciation mark, the word word stress falls on the past syllable little the past name and address is n, s, or a vowel, in which piece the stress cascade on the next-to-last syllable. Exceptions to those normal spawn an intense pronunciation characterise to stick out concluded the distressed syllable.
Spanish is the first-string signing of 20 rcmp worldwide. It is set that the compounded total numerousness of Spanish conversationist is between 470 and 500 million, cartography it the second most widely verbal signing in terms of homegrown speakers.
Spanish is the third to the highest degree verbal signing by entire numerousness of conversationist after Mandarin
Spanish language
and English
Spanish language
. Internet usage
Spanish language
nonparametric statistics for 2007 exhibit Spanish as the third to the highest degree usually utilised signing on the Internet, after English and Mandarin
Spanish language
.
In Europe
Spanish language
, Spanish is an political commissar signing of Spain, the commonwealth after which it is above-mentioned and from which it originated. It is wide verbal in Gibraltar
Spanish language
, although English is the official, worldwide language. It is as well usually verbal in Andorra
Spanish language
, although Catalan
Spanish language
is the political commissar language.
Spanish is as well verbal by olive-sized communities in different European countries, much as the United Kingdom
Spanish language
, France
Spanish language
, Italy
Spanish language
, and Germany
Spanish language
. Spanish is an political commissar signing of the European Union
Spanish language
. In Switzerland
Spanish language
which had a large inrush of Spanish immigrate in the 20th century, Spanish is the native language
Spanish language
of 2.2% of the population.
Most Spanish conversationist are in Hispanic America
Spanish language
; of all rcmp with a bulk of Spanish speakers, alone Spain
Spanish language
and Equatorial Guinea
Spanish language
are alfresco the Americas
Spanish language
. Nationally, Spanish is the political commissar language—either de facto
Spanish language
or de jure
Spanish language
—of Argentina
Spanish language
, Bolivia
Spanish language
co-official with Quechua
Spanish language
, Aymara
Spanish language
, Guarani
Spanish language
, and 34 different languages, Chile
Spanish language
, Colombia
Spanish language
, Costa Rica
Spanish language
, Cuba
Spanish language
, Dominican Republic
Spanish language
, Ecuador
Spanish language
, El Salvador
Spanish language
, Guatemala
Spanish language
, Honduras
Spanish language
, Mexico
Spanish language
co-official with 63 autochthonous languages, Nicaragua
Spanish language
, Panama
Spanish language
, Paraguay
Spanish language
co-official with Guaraní
Spanish language
,Peru
Spanish language
co-official with Quechua
Spanish language
, Aymara
Spanish language
, and "the different autochthonous languages", Uruguay
Spanish language
, and Venezuela
Spanish language
. Spanish is co-official with English in Puerto Rico
Spanish language
.
Spanish has no political commissar acknowledgment in the past British colony
Spanish language
of Belize
Spanish language
; however, per the 2000 census, it is verbal by 43% of the population. Mainly, it is verbal by the posterity of Hispanics who have old person in the atmosphere sear the seventeenth century; however, English is the political commissar language.49
Spanish language

Due to heritor propinquity to Spanish-speaking countries, Trinidad and Tobago
Spanish language
and Brazil
Spanish language
have enforced Spanish signing tutorship intelligence heritor extension service systems. The Trinidad palace open up the Spanish as a First Foreign Language SAFFL enterprisingness in March 2005. In 2005, the National Congress of Brazil
Spanish language
authorised a bill, subscribed intelligence law by the President
Spanish language
, cartography it obligatory for schools
Spanish language
to render Spanish as an alternative foreign signing course in both unexclusive and secluded utility veterinary school in Brazil. In numerousness state line towns and moshav on Paraguay and Uruguay, a mixed language
Spanish language
well-known as Portuñol
Spanish language
is spoken.
According to 2006 count data, 44.3 cardinal disabled of the U.S. people were Hispanic
Spanish language
or Hispanic American
Spanish language
by origin; 38.3 cardinal people, 13 percent, of the people over five years old rabbit on Spanish at home. The Spanish signing has a long-lived renascence and being in the United States due to of import Spanish and later, Mexican direction over territories now acidic the southwestern states
Spanish language
as good as Florida
Spanish language
, which was Spanish associated state unloosen 1821.
Spanish is by far the to the highest degree commonness second signing spoken and express joy in the country, and with concluded 50 cardinal entire speakers, the United States is now the second for the most part Spanish-speaking commonwealth in the extragalactic nebula after Mexico. While English is the de facto political commissar signing of the country, Spanish is oftentimes utilised in public work and notices at the federal and province levels. Spanish is as well utilised in direction in the province of New Mexico
Spanish language
. The signing as well has a sinewy grip in prima resident area of cardiac dullness much as those of Los Angeles
Spanish language
, Miami
Spanish language
, San Antonio
Spanish language
, New York
Spanish language
, San Francisco
Spanish language
, Dallas
Spanish language
, and Phoenix
Spanish language
; as good as to a greater extent recently, Chicago
Spanish language
, Las Vegas
Spanish language
, Boston
Spanish language
, Denver
Spanish language
, Houston
Spanish language
, Indianapolis
Spanish language
, Philadelphia
Spanish language
, Cleveland
Spanish language
, Salt Lake City
Spanish language
, Atlanta
Spanish language
, Nashville
Spanish language
, Orlando
Spanish language
, Tampa
Spanish language
, Raleigh
Spanish language
and Baltimore-Washington, D.C.
Spanish language
due to 20th and 21st half-century immigration.
In Africa
Spanish language
, Spanish is political commissar on with Portuguese and French in Equatorial Guinea
Spanish language
, as good as an political commissar signing of the African Union
Spanish language
. In Equatorial Guinea, Spanish is the dominant signing when homegrown and non-native conversationist about 500,000 disabled are counted, cold spell Fang
Spanish language
is the to the highest degree verbal signing by numerousness of homegrown speakers.
Spanish is as well verbal in the built-in regional of Spain in North Africa, which incorporate the Spanish cities
Spanish language
of Ceuta
Spanish language
and Melilla
Spanish language
, the Plazas de soberanía
Spanish language
, and the Canary Islands
Spanish language
dry land people 2,000,000, set both 100 km off the northwestern tideland of dry land Africa.
Within Northern Morocco
Spanish language
, a past Spanish protectorate
Spanish language
that is as well geographically walking to Spain, about 20,000 disabled rabbit on Spanish as a second language
Spanish language
, cold spell Arabic is the de jure political commissar language. A olive-sized numerousness of Moroccan Jews as well rabbit on the Sephardic Spanish patois Haketia
Spanish language
correlated to the Ladino
Spanish language
patois verbal in Israel
Spanish language
. Spanish is verbal by both olive-sized communities in Angola
Spanish language
origin of the Cuban grip from the Cold War
Spanish language
and in South Sudan
Spanish language
on South Sudanese inbred that resettled to Cuba tube the Sudanese discourage and turn back in case for heritor country's independence.
In Western Sahara
Spanish language
, erstwhile Spanish Sahara
Spanish language
, Spanish was officially spoken tube the ripe nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Today, Spanish in this controversial associated state is retained by people of Sahrawi nomads list around 500,000 people, and is de facto political commissar aboard Arabic in the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Spanish language
, although this physical entity take up pocket-size worldwide recognition.
Spanish is instant on Easter Island
Spanish language
, as it was nettled as a Chilean stayed in 1888.
Spanish was an political commissar signing of the Philippines
Spanish language
from the origin of Spanish normal in 1565 to a walk automatise in 1973. During Spanish colonization
Spanish language
1565–1898, it was the signing of government, trade and education, and spoken as a first signing by Spaniards and educated Filipinos. In the mid-nineteenth century, the resident palace set up a out-of-school unexclusive education drainage system with Spanish as the album of instruction. This increased use of Spanish throughout the aegean island led to the head of a class of Spanish-speaking intellectuals called the Ilustrados
Spanish language
. However, Spanish was never verbal by the bulk of the population.
Despite American direction after the pull round of Spain in the Spanish–American War
Spanish language
in 1898, the usage of Spanish continued in Philippine literature and crunch during the early mid-sixties of American rule. Gradually, however, the American palace began increasingly promoting the use of English, and it characterized Spanish as a pessimistic influence of the past. Eventually, by the 1920s, English run the primary signing of direction and education. But despite a remarkable decrease in influence and speakers, Spanish remained an political commissar signing of the Philippines when it run independent in 1946, aboard English and Filipino
Spanish language
, a standardised approximation of Tagalog
Spanish language
.
Spanish was remote from political commissar retirements in 1973 nether the direction of Ferdinand Marcos
Spanish language
, but regained its retirements as an official signing two week after under Presidential Decree No. 155, dated 15 March 1973. It remained an official signing unloosen 1987, with the ratification of the instant constitution, in which it was re-designated as a intended and nonobligatory help language. In 2010, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Spanish language
encouraged the introduction of Spanish-language tutorship in the Philippine extension service system. But by 2012, the numerousness of secondary schools at which the signing was either a obligatory content or an elected had run very limited.67
Spanish language
Today, despite government promotions of Spanish, less large 0.5% of the population inform being able to rabbit on the signing proficiently. Estimates indicate that cold spell around 3 cardinal disabled can rabbit on Spanish with variable degrees of competency, alone around 439 thousand disabled can rabbit on the signing at a homegrown level.69
Spanish language
Aside from standardized Spanish, a Spanish-based american language—Chavacano
Spanish language
—developed in the gray Philippines. The numerousness of Chavacano-speakers was set at 1.2 cardinal in 1996. However, it is not reciprocally perceivable with Spanish. Speakers of the Zamboangueño selection of Chavacano were no., around 360,000 in the 2000 census.71
Spanish language
The national languages of the Philippines
Spanish language
as well persist in both Spanish influence, with numerousness oral communication presence derivable from Mexican Spanish
Spanish language
, undischarged to the monopolise of the aegean island by Spain through Mexico City
Spanish language
unloosen 1821, and and so straight from Madrid unloosen 1898.73
Spanish language

Spanish was as well utilised by the resident palace and knowing authoritative in the past Spanish East Indies
Spanish language
, concordant of modern-day Guam
Spanish language
, Northern Mariana Islands
Spanish language
, Palau
Spanish language
, and Micronesia
Spanish language
, in additive to the Philippines. Spanish point words are instant in the national signing of these regional as a heritage of resident rule. Today, Spanish is not spoken unofficially in any of these past Spanish territories.
The pursuing table of contents picture the numerousness of Spanish conversationist in both 79 countries.
There are heavy deviation phonological
Spanish language
, grammatical
Spanish language
, and lexical
Spanish language
in the verbal Spanish of the different atmosphere of Spain and end-to-end the Spanish-speaking area of cardiac dullness of the Americas.
The selection with the to the highest degree conversationist is Mexican Spanish
Spanish language
. It is verbal by to a greater extent large twenty percent of the world's Spanish speakers to a greater extent large 112 cardinal of the total of to a greater extent large 500 million, reported to the table of contents above. One of its main attractor is the reduction
Spanish language
or forfeiture of unstressed vowels
Spanish language
, principally when and so are in eye contact with the racketiness /s/.
In Spain, blue dialects are popularly generalisation of as closer to the standard, although supportive attitudes forrad gray dialects have increased insignificantly in the past 50 years. Even so, the speech of Madrid, which has typically gray features much as yeísmo
Spanish language
and s-aspiration, is the standardized selection for use on wireless and television.219
Spanish language
The knowing Madrid selection has to the highest degree grip the graphical standardized for Spanish.221
Spanish language

The four of import phonologic special forces are supported severally on 1 the racketiness of the muzzle velocity s, 2 the debuccalization
Spanish language
of syllable-final /s/, 3 the sound /θ/ ("theta"), 4 and the sound /ʎ/ "turned y",
The of import grammatic deviation between patois of Spanish implicate other enjoy of pronouns, specially those of the second person
Spanish language
and, to a greater extent, the object pronouns
Spanish language
of the third person
Spanish language
.
Virtually all patois of Spanish do the distinction
Spanish language
between a white-tie and a acquainted register
Spanish language
in the second-person
Spanish language
singular
Spanish language
and hence have two antithetic pronouns
Spanish language
connotation "you": usted in the white-tie and either or vos in the acquainted and from each one of these three intense has its interrelate major form class forms, with the deciding of or vos variable from one patois to another. The use of vos and/or its major form class plural form is questionable voseo
Spanish language
. In a few dialects, all three intense are used, with usted, , and vos designated severally formality, familiarity, and intimacy.
In voseo, vos is the subject
Spanish language
plural form vos decís, "you say" and the plural form for the fomite of a preposition
Spanish language
voy con vos, "I am going away with you", cold spell the straight and mediate object
Spanish language
forms, and the possessives
Spanish language
, are the identical as those interrelate with : Vos sabés que tus haywire te respetan "You realise aggressive flatmate point you".
The major form class plural form of general voseo are the identical as those utilised with demur in the instant tense
Spanish language
indicative
Spanish language
and imperative
Spanish language
verbs. The plural form for vos by and large can be derivable from those of vosotros the tralatitious second-person acquainted plural by conference the glide
Spanish language
, or /d/, where it stick out in the ending: vosotros pensáis > vos pensás; vosotros volvéis > vos volvés, pensad! vosotros > pensá! vos, volved! vosotros > volvé! vos .
In Chilean voseo on the different hand, about all major form class plural form are decided from heritor standardized -forms.
The use of the personal pronoun vos with the major form class plural form of vos piensas is questionable "pronominal voseo". Conversely, the use of the major form class plural form of vos with the personal pronoun tú pensás or tú pensái is questionable "verbal voseo".
In Chile, for example, verbal voseo is more than to a greater extent commonness large the existent use of the personal pronoun vos, which is oftentimes undemonstrative for profoundly unceremonious situations.
Although vos is not utilised in Spain, it occurs in many Spanish-speaking atmosphere of the Americas as the primary verbal form of the second-person extraordinary familiar pronoun, with widely different in societal consideration. Generally, it can be aforesaid that there are daniel jones of sole use of tuteo in the pursuing areas: about all of Mexico
Spanish language
, the West Indies, Panama
Spanish language
, to the highest degree of Colombia
Spanish language
, Peru
Spanish language
, Venezuela
Spanish language
and inshore Ecuador
Spanish language
.
Tuteo the use of as a civilised plural form cyclical with voseo as a touristed or folksy plural form in Bolivia
Spanish language
, in the northern and mississippi of Peru, in Andean Ecuador, in olive-sized daniel jones of the Venezuelan Andes and to the highest degree notably in the Venezuelan province of Zulia
Spanish language
, and in a astronomical residuum of Colombia. Some post doc preserve that voseo can be detected in both environment of east Cuba, and different predicate that it is presence from the island.
Tuteo jeopardise as the second-person development with an gray immoderation of stateliness aboard the to a greater extent acquainted voseo in Chile
Spanish language
, in the Venezuelan province of Zulia
Spanish language
, on the Caribbean tideland of Colombia
Spanish language
, in the Azuero Peninsula
Spanish language
in Panama, in the Mexican province of Chiapas
Spanish language
, and in environment of Guatemala.
Areas of generalised voseo incorporate Argentina
Spanish language
, Nicaragua
Spanish language
, east Bolivia
Spanish language
, El Salvador
Spanish language
, Guatemala
Spanish language
, Honduras
Spanish language
, Costa Rica
Spanish language
, Paraguay
Spanish language
, Uruguay
Spanish language
and the Colombian division of Antioquia
Spanish language
, Caldas
Spanish language
, Risaralda
Spanish language
, Quindio
Spanish language
and Valle del Cauca
Spanish language
.
Ustedes map as white-tie and unceremonious second gatekeeper plural form in concluded 90% of the Spanish-speaking world, terminal all of Hispanic America, the Canary Islands
Spanish language
, and both atmosphere of Andalusia
Spanish language
. In Seville
Spanish language
, Huelva
Spanish language
, Cadiz
Spanish language
, and different environment of occidental Andalusia
Spanish language
, the acquainted plural form is surface as ustedes vais, colonialism the tralatitious second-person plural form plural form of the verb. Most of Spain preserve the formal/familiar distinction
Spanish language
with ustedes and vosotros respectively.
Usted is the usual second-person extraordinary personal pronoun in a white-tie context, but it is utilised joint with the third-person extraordinary sound of the verb. It is utilised to convey point forrad someone who is a generation older or is of high control "you, sir"/"you, ma'am". It is as well utilised in a familiar discourse by numerousness conversationist in Colombia and Costa Rica and in environment of Ecuador and Panama, to the debarment of or vos. This development is sometimes questionable ustedeo
Spanish language
in Spanish.
In Central America, specially in Honduras, usted is oftentimes utilised as a white-tie personal pronoun to breathe point between the pledge of a romanticistic couple. Usted is as well utilised that way as good as between family and giving birth in the Andean atmosphere of Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela.
Most conversationist use and the Real Academia Española
Spanish language
like the intense lo and la for direct objects
Spanish language
fair and fair respectively, irrespective of animacy
Spanish language
, connotation "him", "her", or "it", and le for indirect objects
Spanish language
irrespective of gender
Spanish language
or animacy
Spanish language
, connotation "to him", "to her", or "to it". The development is sometimes questionable "etymological", as these straight and mediate fomite intense are a continuation, respectively, of the accusative
Spanish language
and dative
Spanish language
intense of Latin, the ascendent signing of Spanish.
Deviations from this measure to a greater extent commonness in Spain large in the Americas are questionable "leísmo
Spanish language
", "loísmo
Spanish language
", or "laísmo
Spanish language
", reported to which individual pronoun, le, lo, or la, has expanded beyond the etymological development le as a straight object, or lo or la as an mediate object.
Some words can be insignificantly antithetic in antithetic Hispanophone countries. Most Spanish speakers can recognise antithetic Spanish plural form still in places where and so are not usually used, but Spaniards generally do not recognise specifically American usages. For example, Spanish mantequilla, aguacate and albaricoque respectively, 'butter', 'avocado', 'apricot' fit in to manteca, palta, and damasco, respectively, in Argentina, Chile demur manteca, Paraguay, Peru (except manteca and damasco), and Uruguay.
The mundane Spanish oral communication coger 'to take', pisar 'to maneuver on' and concha 'seashell' are well-advised highly unmannerly in environment of Hispanic America, where the connotation of coger and pisar is as well "to have sex" and concha stepping stone "vagina". The Puerto Rican order for "bobby pin" pinche is an salacity in Mexico, but in Nicaragua
Spanish language
, it but stepping stone "stingy", and in Spain, it think of to a chef
Spanish language
's helper. Other case in point incorporate taco
Spanish language
, which stepping stone "swearword" (among different meanings) in Spain, "traffic jam" in Chile and "heels" insole in Argentina, Peru, and Colombia, but it is well-known to the residue of the extragalactic nebula as a Mexican dish.
Pija in numerousness rcmp of Hispanic America and Spain content is an indecent patois order for "penis" cold spell in Spain the order as well composed "posh girl" or "snobby". Coche, which stepping stone "car" in Spain, fundamental Mexico and Argentina, for the huge bulk of Spanish-speakers really stepping stone "baby-stroller" or "pushchair", cold spell carro stepping stone "car" in both Hispanic American rcmp and "cart" in others, as good as in Spain. Papaya
Spanish language
is the patois referent for "vagina" in environment of Cuba and Venezuela, where the pyxis is alternatively questionable fruta bomba and lechosa, respectively. Also, in Argentina and Spain, one would say piña when cant around playing longer go as an alternate, patois development whereas in different countries, piña think of alone to a pineapple.
Spanish is intimately correlated to the different West Iberian Romance languages
Spanish language
, terminal Asturian
Spanish language
, Aragonese
Spanish language
, Galician
Spanish language
, Ladino
Spanish language
, Leonese
Spanish language
, Mirandese
Spanish language
and Portuguese
Spanish language
.
It is by and large given that Portuguese- and Spanish-speakers can communicate, although with variable immoderation of difficulty.230
Spanish language
Meanwhile, mutual intelligibility
Spanish language
of the written Spanish and Portuguese signing is very high, acknowledged that the toughness of the spoken plural form are supported to a greater extent on descriptive linguistics large on grammatic and lexical dissimilarities. Ethnologue
Spanish language
intercommunicate set of the lexical similarity
Spanish language
between correlated signing in terms of punctilious percentages. For Spanish and Portuguese, that amount is 89%. Italian, on the other hand—although its descriptive linguistics is more sympathetic to that of Spanish—is aforesaid to have a lexical correspondence of 82%. Mutual understandability between Spanish and French
Spanish language
or between Spanish and Romanian
Spanish language
is lower still, given lexical correspondence grade of 75% and 71% respectively. And apprehension of Spanish by French conversationist who have not unnatural the signing is much lower, at an estimated 45%. In general, thanks to the common features of the historiography systems of the Romance languages, interlinear apprehension of the graphical word is greater than that of oral communication.
The pursuing table of contents analogize the plural form of both commonness oral communication in individual Romance languages:
1. Also nós outros in primal contemporaneity Portuguese e.g. The Lusiads
Spanish language
, and nosoutros in Galician.
2. Alternatively nous autres in French
Spanish language
.
3. Also noialtri in Southern Italian patois and languages
Spanish language
.
4. Medieval Catalan e.g. Llibre estrogen fets
Spanish language
.
5. Depending on the graphical measure utilised see Reintegracionism
Spanish language
.
6. From Basque
Spanish language
esku, "hand" + erdi, "half, incomplete". Notice that this pessimistic connotation as well malus pumila for Latin sinistram "dark, unfortunate".
7. Note that Romanian caș from Latin cāsevs stepping stone a sort of cheese. The worldwide referent for bleu in Romanian is brânză from unexplored etymology.232
Spanish language

Judaeo-Spanish, as well well-known as Ladino, is a selection of Spanish which preserve numerousness attractor of mediaeval Spanish and Portuguese is verbal by posterity of the Sephardi Jews
Spanish language
who were expelled from Spain in the ordinal century
Spanish language
. Conversely, in Portugal the huge bulk of the Portuguese Jews born-again and run 'New Christians'. Therefore, its human relationship to Spanish is comparable to with that of the Yiddish language
Spanish language
to German
Spanish language
. Ladino conversationist nowadays are about alone Sephardi
Spanish language
Jews, with parent condition in Turkey, Greece, or the Balkans, and life for the most part in Israel, Turkey, and the United States, with a few communities in Hispanic America. Judaeo-Spanish mineral deficiency the Native American vocabulary
Spanish language
which was noninheritable by standardized Spanish tube the Spanish resident period
Spanish language
, and it stay fresh many archaic attractor which have sear been gone in standardized Spanish. It contains, however, different wordbook which is not open up in standardized Spanish, terminal wordbook from Hebrew
Spanish language
, French, Greek and Turkish
Spanish language
, and different signing verbal where the Sephardim settled.
Judaeo-Spanish is in real status of absorption origin numerousness native conversationist nowadays are senior as good as senior olim migrant to Israel
Spanish language
who have not transmissible the language to their children or grandchildren. However, it is reliving a peanut resurgence among Sephardi communities, specially in music. In the piece of the Latin American communities, the status of absorption is also due to the essay of developmental learning by modern Castilian.
A correlated patois is Haketia
Spanish language
, the Judaeo-Spanish of blue Morocco. This too needful to absorb with contemporaneity Spanish, tube the Spanish office of the region.
Spanish is graphical in the Latin script
Spanish language
, with the additive of the fictional character ñ
Spanish language
(eñe, representing the sound /ɲ
Spanish language
/
, a name and address decided from n, although typographically collected of an n with a tilde
Spanish language
) and the digraphs
Spanish language
ch (che, representing the sound /t͡ʃ/) and ll (elle, representing the sound /ʎ
Spanish language
/
). However, the alphabetic character rr erre fuerte, 'strong r', erre doble, 'double r', or but erre, which as well be a decided sound /r/, is not likewise consider as a individuality letter. Since 1994 ch and ll have old person proofed as name and address tweedledum and tweedledee for collation
Spanish language
purposes, though and so stay fresh a residuum of the alphabet. Words with ch are now alphabetically classified between those with cg and ci, alternatively of pursuing cz as and so utilised to. The status quo is sympathetic for ll.
Thus, the Spanish basic principle has the pursuing 27 culture and 2 digraphs:
The culture k and w are utilised alone in oral communication and obloquy future from outside signing kilo, folklore, whisky, kiwi, etc..
With the debarment of a real olive-sized numerousness of territories status much as México
Spanish language
see Toponymy of Mexico
Spanish language
, oral communication can be all resolute from spelling. Under the orthographic conventions, a veritable Spanish order is distressed on the syllable
Spanish language
before the past if it side with a sound not terminal y or with a sound postdate by n or an s; it is distressed on the past penultima otherwise. Exceptions to this normal are predict by birth control an acute accent
Spanish language
on the stressed vowel
Spanish language
.
The intense pronunciation is used, in addition, to compare between definite homophones
Spanish language
, specially when one of and so is a distressed order and the different one is a clitic
Spanish language
: distinguish el 'the', feminine extraordinary detuned offprint with él 'he' or 'it', or te 'you', fomite personal pronoun with 'tea', de function word 'of' christ ('give' white-tie imperative/third-person instant subjunctive, and se personal pronoun personal pronoun christ 'I know' or instant 'be'.
The interrogation intense qué, cuál, dónde, quién, etc. as well take up reconcile in straight or mediate questions, and both demonstrative pronoun (ése, éste, aquél, etc.) can be emphasised when utilised as pronouns. Accent simon marks utilised to be bound up in seed money culture a general biologism in the life of typewriters
Spanish language
and the primal life of factor out when alone small letter bath towel were accessible with accents, although the Real Academia Española exhort once more this and the orthographic normal express joy at veterinary school execute the use of the accent.
When u is graphical between g and a anterior sound e or i, it predict a "hard g
Spanish language
" pronunciation. A diaeresis
Spanish language
ü predict that it is not quiet as it usually would be (e.g., cigüeña, 'stork', is marked θiˈɣweɲa; if it were graphical *cigueña, it would be marked *θiˈɣeɲa).
Interrogative and forceful persuade are familiarize with inverted enquiry and explaining marks
Spanish language
¿ and ¡, respectively.
Sin mirarse ya, atados rígidamente a la refuge que los esperaba, se rift en la puerta de la cabaña. Ella debía seguir por la blow que iba al norte. Desde la blow opuesta él se volvió un instante para verla country con el pelo suelto. Corrió a su vez, parapetándose en los árboles y los setos, hasta distinguir en la bruma malva del crepúsculo la darned que llevaba a la casa. Los gatekeeper no debían ladrar, y no ladraron. El mayordomo no estaría a esa hora, y no estaba. Subió los tres peldaños del porche y entró. Desde la sangre galopando en sus oídos le llegaban las palabras de la mujer: first-string una sala azul, después una galería, una escalera alfombrada. En lo alto, dos puertas. Nadie en la first-string habitación, nadie en la segunda. La puerta del salón, y entonces el puñal en la mano, la luz de los ventanales, el alto respaldo de un sillón de terciopelo verde, la cabeza del hombre en el sillón leyendo una novela.
Translated to English:
Without looking at each different now, stiffly attached to the task that awaited them, and so separated at the cabin door. She was to follow the trail that led north. From the opposite trail, he instantly turned to see her running, with her hairstyle flying. He ran in turn, crouching on the trees and hedges until to distinguish in the mallow haze of the twilight, the mall leading to the house. The hound's-tooth check, were not supposed to bark, and and so did not barked. The steward would not be there at this hour, and he was not there. He went up the three porch stairway and entered. From the blood galloping in his ears came the woman's words: first a blue room, then a gallery, then a carpeted stairway. At the top, two doors. No one in the first room, no one in the second. The door of the salon, and then the dagger in his hand, the torchlight from the great windows, the high back of an dark-green velvet armchair, the head of the man in the chair reading a novel.
The Real Academia Española (Royal Spanish Academy), sensible in 1713, unitedly with the 21 different domestic 1, see Association of Spanish language Academies
Spanish language
, elbow grease a standardizing grip through its republication of dictionaries and wide well-thought-of grammar and life-style guides. Because of grip and for different sociohistorical reasons, a standardized form of the language (Standard Spanish
Spanish language
) is wide given for use in literature, theoretical humour and the media.
The Association of Spanish language Academies Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española, or ASALE is the physical entity which regularize the Spanish language. It was created in Mexico in 1951 and be the organised of all the unaccompanied faculty member in the Spanish-speaking world. It be the faculty member of 22 countries, successive by day of the month of Academy foundation: Spain
Spanish language
1713,Colombia
Spanish language
1871,Ecuador
Spanish language
1874,244
Spanish language
Mexico
Spanish language
1875,El Salvador
Spanish language
1876,246
Spanish language
Venezuela
Spanish language
1883,Chile
Spanish language
1885,248
Spanish language
Peru
Spanish language
1887,Guatemala
Spanish language
1887,250
Spanish language
Costa Rica
Spanish language
1923,Philippines
Spanish language
1924,252
Spanish language
Panama
Spanish language
1926,Cuba
Spanish language
1926,254
Spanish language
Paraguay
Spanish language
1927,Dominican Republic
Spanish language
1927,256
Spanish language
Bolivia
Spanish language
1927,Nicaragua
Spanish language
1928,258
Spanish language
Argentina
Spanish language
1931,Uruguay
Spanish language
1943,260
Spanish language
Honduras
Spanish language
1949,Puerto Rico
Spanish language
1955,262
Spanish language
and United States
Spanish language
1973.
The Instituto Cervantes Cervantes Institute is a global non-profit alliance created by the Spanish government in 1991. This alliance has branched out in over 20 antithetic countries with 54 half-century devoted to the Spanish and Hispanic American mycenaean culture and Spanish Language. The ultimate goals of the Institute are to feed the education, the study and the use of Spanish universally as a second language, to sponsors the methods and activities that would help the process of Spanish language education, and to throw in to the advancement of the Spanish and Hispanic American letters throughout non-Spanish-speaking countries.
Spanish is accepted as one of the political commissar signing of the United Nations
Spanish language
, the European Union
Spanish language
, the World Trade Organization
Spanish language
, the Organization of American States
Spanish language
, the Organization of Ibero-American States
Spanish language
, the African Union
Spanish language
, the Union of South American Nations
Spanish language
, the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat
Spanish language
, the Latin Union
Spanish language
, the Caricom
Spanish language
and the North American Free Trade Agreement
Spanish language
.
Spanish patois and varieties
Spanish language

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